Therefore, they are declined in the third declension, but they are not declined as i-stems. In accusative case, the forms mēmē and tētē exist as emphatic, but they are not widely used. Vestigial Cases: Locative (locativus): Denotes "the place where. [2] and it is also still used in Germany and most European countries. For declension tables of second-declension nouns, see the corresponding Wiktionary appendix. The possessive adjective vester has an archaic variant, voster; similar to noster. Ūnus, ūna, ūnum is declined like a first- and second-declension pronoun with -īus or -ius in the genitive, and -ī in the dative. In the older language, nouns ending with -vus, -quus and -vum take o rather than u in the nominative and accusative singular. However, in Britain and countries influenced by Britain, the Latin cases are usually given in the following order: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. It even recognizes P.C., Abl.Abs., ACI and NCI! Some (but not all) nouns in -er drop the e genitive and other cases. [11], In Neo-Latin, a plural form is necessary in order to express the modern concept of ‘viruses’, which leads to the following declension:[12][13][14]. The regular case endings of the five declensions are as follows. Nouns ending in -iēs have long ēī in the dative and genitive, while nouns ending in a consonant + -ēs have short eī in these cases. Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case, number and gender. All cardinal numerals are indeclinable, except ūnus ('one'), duo ('two'), trēs ('three'), plural hundreds ducentī ('two hundred'), trecentī ('three hundred') etc., and mīlle ('thousand'), which have cases and genders like adjectives. Neuter nouns generally have a nominative singular consisting of the stem and the ending -um. This group of nouns includes masculine, neuter, and feminine nouns. The first noun group that uses the same suffixes to form case is, not surprisingly, called first declension. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is o. They can be remembered by using the mnemonic acronym ūnus nauta. Latin has five declensions the origin of which are explained in Latin history books. In the nominative singular, most masculine nouns consist of the stem and the ending -us, although some end in -er, which is not necessarily attached to the complete stem. i-stems are broken into two subcategories: pure and mixed. The cardinal numbers ūnus 'one', duo 'two', and trēs 'three' also have their own declensions (ūnus has genitive -īus like a pronoun), and there are also numeral adjectives such as bīnī 'a pair, two each', which decline like ordinary adjectives. Download PDF; About the chart. Other adjectives such as celer, celeris, celere belong to the third declension. Duo is declined irregularly, trēs is declined like a third-declension plural adjective, -centī ('hundred') numerals decline like first- and second-declension adjectives, and mīlle is invariable in the singular and declined like a third-declension i-stem neuter noun in the plural: The plural endings for ūnus are used with plūrālia tantum nouns, e. g. ūna castra (one [military] camp), ūnae scālae (one ladder). First and second declension pronominal adjectives, Third-declension adjectives with one ending, Third-declension adjectives with two endings, Third-declension adjectives with three endings, Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives, Comparatives and superlatives with normal endings, Adverbs and their comparatives and superlatives, Adverbs from first- and second-declension adjectives, Irregular adverbs and their comparative and superlative forms. The vocative singular masculine of meus is mī: mī Attice 'my dear Atticus'.[20]. The stem of the noun can be identified by the form of the genitive singular as well. Adverbs are not declined. [16], The accusative singular ending -im is found only in a few words: always in tussis 'cough', sitis 'thirst', Tiberis 'River Tiber'; usually in secūris 'axe', turris 'tower'; occasionally in nāvis 'ship'. Indices duo, quorum altero nomina referuntur eorum, ad quos Plinius scribit, altero quicquid memoratu dignum toto opere continetur. These nouns are irregular only in the singular, as are their first-declension counterparts. Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin. To define a noun and know which declension it belongs to, you have two different cases, nominative or genitive, then its type (feminine, masculine or neutral). The fourth declension also includes several neuter nouns including genū, genūs n. ('knee'). It can be singular or plural and the ending of the verb changes as you change the person. )', which have their own irregular declension, and the third-person pronouns such as hic 'this' and ille 'that' which can generally be used either as pronouns or adjectivally. Adverbs' comparative forms are identical to the nominative neuter singular of the corresponding comparative adjective. Adjectives (in the first and second as well as third declensions) that have masculine nominative singular forms ending in -er are slightly different. The mixed declension is distinguished from the consonant type only by having -ium in the genitive plural (and occasionally -īs in the accusative plural). Using the Latin Supine for Verbal Nouns. For example, theātron can appear as theātrum.